Parkinson’s disease is a chronic neurological condition adversely affecting the central nervous system and causing a decrease in movement coordination capabilities and control over one’s muscles. The disease named after James Parkinson, a british doctor and scientist, usually develops in people older than 60 years of age.
The main symptom of the Parkinson disease is tremor beginning in one of the hands, later spreading to other libs of the human body. Moreover, patients may have difficulty with the muscle tone, which leads to lower motion and loss of coordination. Many patients complain of pain in both the muscles and the joints. Parkinson’s also affects memory and concentration, moreover, patients often experience emotional imbalance resulting in depression and frequent changes in the mood.
Neurophysiological tests, such as EMG or EEG, enable evaluation of how the nervous system functions, and help find other diseases which could be masking Parkinson symptoms. Moreover, MRT and CT scans can help discovering pathologies in the brain and rule out other forms of dementia which can imitate the symptoms of the Parkinson disease.
For a more accurate and exact establishment of a Prkinson’s diagnosis, additional research methods may be useful. These include neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive functions and psychoemotional state of the patient, implement evaluation scales for movement impairment to define and delimit the degrees of motor disturbance symptoms, etc.
One particular trait of the Parkinson disease is that it may be discovered at an early stage, even within the preclinical period. This involves the use of certain biomarkers to help detect changes in the brain which emerge more clearly as the disease develops, and provide an accurate forecast on its development process .
Diagnostics of the Parkinson disease is established based on the symptoms and the results of medical research, including tests in neurophysiology, such as electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Moreover, the patient may be assigned magnetic resonance tomography (МРТ) and computer tomography (CT) scans in order to rule out other diseases, which may cause symptoms resembling those of Parkinson’s.
The treatment of Parkinson’s may include different methods such as drug therapy, physiotherapy, and psychological support. Medicinal therapy may involve the use dopamine agents, which increase dopamine concentration in the brain to increase control over muscular activity. Physiotherapy and directed exercises may also help patients retain muscle strength and flexibility and reduce the symptomatic effect. Moreover, psychological support and consulting can help patients gain new skills and increase their quality of life.